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GENetic EStimation and Inference in Structured samples (GENESIS): Statistical methods for analyzing genetic data from samples with population structure and/or relatedness

Bioconductor version: Release (3.19)

The GENESIS package provides methodology for estimating, inferring, and accounting for population and pedigree structure in genetic analyses. The current implementation provides functions to perform PC-AiR (Conomos et al., 2015, Gen Epi) and PC-Relate (Conomos et al., 2016, AJHG). PC-AiR performs a Principal Components Analysis on genome-wide SNP data for the detection of population structure in a sample that may contain known or cryptic relatedness. Unlike standard PCA, PC-AiR accounts for relatedness in the sample to provide accurate ancestry inference that is not confounded by family structure. PC-Relate uses ancestry representative principal components to adjust for population structure/ancestry and accurately estimate measures of recent genetic relatedness such as kinship coefficients, IBD sharing probabilities, and inbreeding coefficients. Additionally, functions are provided to perform efficient variance component estimation and mixed model association testing for both quantitative and binary phenotypes.

Author: Matthew P. Conomos, Stephanie M. Gogarten, Lisa Brown, Han Chen, Thomas Lumley, Kenneth Rice, Tamar Sofer, Adrienne Stilp, Timothy Thornton, Chaoyu Yu

Maintainer: Stephanie M. Gogarten <sdmorris at>

Citation (from within R, enter citation("GENESIS")):


To install this package, start R (version "4.4") and enter:

if (!require("BiocManager", quietly = TRUE))


For older versions of R, please refer to the appropriate Bioconductor release.


To view documentation for the version of this package installed in your system, start R and enter:

Analyzing Sequence Data using the GENESIS Package HTML R Script
Genetic Association Testing using the GENESIS Package HTML R Script
Population Structure and Relatedness Inference using the GENESIS Package HTML R Script
Reference Manual PDF


biocViews BiocViews, DimensionReduction, GeneticVariability, Genetics, GenomeWideAssociation, PrincipalComponent, QualityControl, SNP, Software, StatisticalMethod
Version 2.34.0
In Bioconductor since BioC 3.1 (R-3.2) (9.5 years)
License GPL-3
Imports Biobase, BiocGenerics, BiocParallel, GWASTools, gdsfmt, GenomicRanges, IRanges, S4Vectors, SeqArray, SeqVarTools, SNPRelate, data.table, graphics, grDevices, igraph, Matrix, methods, reshape2, stats, utils
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Suggests CompQuadForm, COMPoissonReg, poibin, SPAtest, survey, testthat, BiocStyle, knitr, rmarkdown, GWASdata, dplyr, ggplot2, GGally, RColorBrewer, TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene
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Source Package GENESIS_2.34.0.tar.gz
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