Automatic Functional Enrichment on Signature Genes

Author: Zuguang Gu ( z.gu@dkfz.de )

Date: 2020-02-07

Package version: 1.3.4


If the matrix rows can correspond to genes (e.g. the gene expression matrix, or the methylation array data where CpG sites can be annotated to the transcription start site of genes), cola performs functional enrichment by the functional_enrichment() function to the signatures by ClusterProfiler, DOSE or ReactomePA packages.

We first demonstrate the usage of functional_enrichment() function by the TCGA GBM dataset. In following example code, TCGA_GBM_subgroup.rds is generated by the code demonstrated here. We download the result file that has already been generated.

download.file("https://jokergoo.github.io/cola_examples/TCGA_GBM/TCGA_GBM_subgroup.rds", 
    destfile = "TCGA_GBM_subgroup.rds", quiet = TRUE)
rl = readRDS("TCGA_GBM_subgroup.rds")
file.remove("TCGA_GBM_subgroup.rds")

We select result from a single method ATC:skmeans:

library(cola)
res = rl["ATC:skmeans"]
res
## A 'ConsensusPartition' object with k = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
##   On a matrix with 11268 rows and 173 columns.
##   Top rows (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000) are extracted by 'ATC' method.
##   Subgroups are detected by 'skmeans' method.
##   Performed in total 1250 partitions by row resampling.
##   Best k for subgroups seems to be 4.
## 
## Following methods can be applied to this 'ConsensusPartition' object:
##  [1] "cola_report"             "collect_classes"         "collect_plots"          
##  [4] "collect_stats"           "colnames"                "compare_signatures"     
##  [7] "consensus_heatmap"       "dimension_reduction"     "functional_enrichment"  
## [10] "get_anno"                "get_anno_col"            "get_classes"            
## [13] "get_consensus"           "get_matrix"              "get_membership"         
## [16] "get_param"               "get_signatures"          "get_stats"              
## [19] "is_best_k"               "is_stable_k"             "membership_heatmap"     
## [22] "ncol"                    "nrow"                    "plot_ecdf"              
## [25] "rownames"                "select_partition_number" "show"                   
## [28] "suggest_best_k"          "test_to_known_factors"

We check how the signature genes looks like under 4-group classification:

set.seed(123)
get_signatures(res, k = 4)
## * 167/173 samples (in 4 classes) remain after filtering by silhouette (>= 0.5).
## * cache hash: eef958f7cb17f1f44dd5ec01d14dd902 (seed 888).
## * calculating row difference between subgroups by Ftest.
## * split rows into 4 groups by k-means clustering.
## * 10023 signatures (89.0%) under fdr < 0.05, group_diff > 0.
##   - randomly sample 2000 signatures.
## * making heatmaps for signatures.

plot of chunk unnamed-chunk-4

Rows are split into four groups with different expression patterns among samples. The functional enrichment will be applied to genes in each row-cluster.

To apply functional enrichment, the important thing is to check the gene ID type in the input matrix. The helper function rownames() directly returns the row names of the matrix stored in res.

head(rownames(res))
## [1] "AACS"    "FSTL1"   "ELMO2"   "CREB3L1" "RPS11"   "PNMA1"

The gene ID is symbol. For all enrichment analysis provided by ClusterProfiler, DOSE or ReactomePA, the core ID type is Entrez ID, thus we need to convert from symbol to Entrez ID.

To make it easy, cola automatically tests the gene IDs types and it automatically recognizes three ID types of Ensembl ID, RefSeq ID and gene symbol, which covers most cases of the analysis. If user's gene ID type is one of the three supported ones, simply run functional_enrichment() on res only with specifying the number of subgroups.

lt = functional_enrichment(res, k = 4)

By default, functional_enrichment() runs enrichment on Gene Ontology, biological function ontologies. ontology can be set as follows:

ontology can be set as a vector of multiple ontologies.

The value of lt is a list of data frames for different ontologies combined with different k-means groups. Since k-means clustering has already been applied in previous get_signatures(), the k-means clustering result is stored in res object and functional_enrichment() directly uses the classification from it.

names(lt)
## [1] "BP_km1" "BP_km2" "BP_km3" "BP_km4"
head(lt[[1]])
##                    ID                               Description GeneRatio   BgRatio       pvalue
## GO:0010469 GO:0010469 regulation of signaling receptor activity  116/1443 588/17913 5.094534e-20
## GO:0008015 GO:0008015                         blood circulation  100/1443 523/17913 1.953545e-16
## GO:0003013 GO:0003013                circulatory system process  101/1443 532/17913 2.256348e-16
## GO:0010817 GO:0010817              regulation of hormone levels   95/1443 503/17913 2.560685e-15
## GO:0030855 GO:0030855           epithelial cell differentiation  123/1443 746/17913 8.436502e-15
## GO:0055080 GO:0055080                        cation homeostasis  102/1443 588/17913 7.326199e-14
##                p.adjust       qvalue
## GO:0010469 2.888091e-16 2.279670e-16
## GO:0008015 4.263745e-13 3.365521e-13
## GO:0003013 4.263745e-13 3.365521e-13
## GO:0010817 3.629131e-12 2.864598e-12
## GO:0030855 9.565306e-12 7.550226e-12
## GO:0055080 6.922037e-11 5.463802e-11
##                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      geneID
## GO:0010469                                                             BMP3/CCL19/BUD31/GDF10/CGA/NENF/IL23A/WNT10B/CCL23/SCT/VIP/CALCR/EPO/TNFSF15/CCL17/SHANK1/CRLF1/TNFSF18/MUC4/LY6H/TNFSF9/INSL3/OXT/WNT8B/FGF17/RASGRF1/KL/TNF/CAV3/RAMP3/NTS/XCL1/WNT1/CALCB/AMBN/IFNW1/NTF3/FGF5/INHA/FGF21/IL21/DKKL1/CBLC/IFNA21/AVP/CTF1/ADH7/EDN3/GH2/CSF3/ADRB2/IL3/CCL24/ADRA2B/GRIN1/CACNG3/CSH2/LTA/NRG1/IFNA8/GHRH/GDF3/LEP/CCL22/CRHBP/SHH/THPO/GRIN2A/FGF22/CCL11/IAPP/GRP/IL17B/POMC/IL26/PRLH/CDC42EP2/GREM1/TTR/CCL16/CARTPT/TDGF1/IL11/WNT4/TSHB/TNFSF14/PF4/MLN/BMP6/GDF2/F2/IL13/NRTN/IL19/PPY/TNFSF11/OSGIN1/IL4/CCL1/PHLDA2/REG1A/AGTR2/ADRA2C/FGF20/PSPN/CCL27/BMP4/RLN2/BTC/ADM2/IL2/WNT7A/AGRP/RGS9/EDN2/CSF2
## GO:0008015                                                                                                                         CD38/NPR1/CACNB1/DBH/ADRA1A/FXYD2/CMA1/TACR2/SNTA1/CACNA1C/P2RX1/HBB/CASR/HCN4/ATP2B3/EPO/TH/MYL1/S100A1/CACNA2D3/LPA/FGA/CACNA1S/CASQ2/OXT/CSRP3/CAV3/NTS/CALM2/CASQ1/KCNJ12/KCNJ3/FXYD1/HSPB7/AVP/DRD1/MYL4/NFE2/SLC6A4/KEL/ADORA2A/EDN3/KCNG2/SERPINF2/AZU1/RNF207/ADRA2B/CACNG3/KCNK15/RYR2/GSTO1/NTSR1/LEP/MYH6/TACR1/TNNT2/AGER/CYP4F12/PKP2/SOD1/BBS4/P2RX2/ID2/POMC/KCNE1/DRD5/FGB/COL4A3/GLP1R/P2RY2/CTSG/KCNJ4/CARTPT/NOX1/MYL2/IRX5/GPR37L1/RYR1/ADRB1/ATP2A3/FOXC2/MYL3/CYP4F2/TRPV4/SGCD/REN/AGTR2/ADRA2C/SRI/TNNI3/TNNC1/ADRA1B/DES/ATP1A2/ADM2/HTR1B/IL2/EDN2/FXYD3/GRIP2
## GO:0003013                                                                                                                   CD38/NPR1/CACNB1/DBH/ADRA1A/FXYD2/CMA1/TACR2/SNTA1/CACNA1C/P2RX1/HBB/CASR/HCN4/ATP2B3/EPO/TH/MYL1/S100A1/CACNA2D3/LPA/FGA/CACNA1S/CASQ2/OXT/CSRP3/CAV3/RAMP3/NTS/CALM2/CASQ1/KCNJ12/KCNJ3/FXYD1/HSPB7/AVP/DRD1/MYL4/NFE2/SLC6A4/KEL/ADORA2A/EDN3/KCNG2/SERPINF2/AZU1/RNF207/ADRA2B/CACNG3/KCNK15/RYR2/GSTO1/NTSR1/LEP/MYH6/TACR1/TNNT2/AGER/CYP4F12/PKP2/SOD1/BBS4/P2RX2/ID2/POMC/KCNE1/DRD5/FGB/COL4A3/GLP1R/P2RY2/CTSG/KCNJ4/CARTPT/NOX1/MYL2/IRX5/GPR37L1/RYR1/ADRB1/ATP2A3/FOXC2/MYL3/CYP4F2/TRPV4/SGCD/REN/AGTR2/ADRA2C/SRI/TNNI3/TNNC1/ADRA1B/DES/ATP1A2/ADM2/HTR1B/IL2/EDN2/FXYD3/GRIP2
## GO:0010817                                                                                                                                     CD38/TFR2/CYP1A1/CGA/TFAP2B/GFI1/CMA1/TACR2/BAIAP3/CACNA1C/SLC5A7/VIP/CASR/KCNC2/SLC44A4/VSNL1/ALDH1A2/SULT1A1/RDH16/ACHE/DHRS9/HNF1A/FGA/PAX8/CYP26A1/PON3/ARL2/CPLX3/OPRK1/SRD5A2/RDH8/TNF/STAR/GHRHR/INHA/DKKL1/HSD17B6/DIO3/HPN/ADORA2A/EDN3/KCNG2/DUOX1/SULT1E1/SERPINA7/ADRA2B/RAPGEF3/NR1H4/FDXR/HSD17B8/GHRH/CYP11A1/LEP/ISL1/CRHBP/TACR1/SHH/BLK/DIO1/GRP/KLK6/HTR2C/FGB/GLP1R/TTR/CTSG/CARTPT/CFTR/SIRT3/IL11/WNT4/AKR1C3/APOA1/TSHB/CYP3A4/HSD17B2/FOXA2/GCK/BMP6/AKR1C4/CRABP2/GATA3/TNFSF11/PDX1/TRPV4/NR0B2/REN/AGTR2/ADRA2C/CRYM/SRI/DUOX2/RBP4/CYP46A1/DHRS2
## GO:0030855 XDH/CYP1A1/KRT15/HOXB5/UPK1B/DSC1/KRT34/WNT10B/KRT4/PAX6/CLDN3/BARX1/PGR/SH3BP1/KRTAP2-4/PKP3/SLC44A4/KRT13/KRTAP5-9/KRT24/TGM3/SFN/OVOL2/DHRS9/CLDN5/PAX8/GSTM3/RARG/FOXN1/ELF5/PITX3/KRT5/KRT37/PPL/TNF/KRT8/GLI1/TCF15/PDZD7/WNT1/AQP3/KRTAP5-8/WNT11/TST/ELF3/CDX2/MSX2/TBX1/RHCG/EMX1/LHX1/CCNO/UPK3A/RAPGEF3/NRG1/KRT32/GDF3/ETV2/TCF21/SIX2/PKP2/WNT16/KRT86/PROC/SOD1/KRT16/ID2/KRT35/KRT33A/S100A7/SOX17/GREM1/MGMT/ACTL8/KRT14/PRSS8/WNT4/AKR1C3/KRT23/B9D1/KRT1/FOXJ1/RHEB/KRT17/BMP6/GDF2/BFSP2/KRT83/KLK12/RAB25/PAX2/IL13/CDH3/VIL1/GATA3/FOXC2/PDX1/KRT7/KRT19/KRT12/SULT2B1/IVL/EVPL/ROS1/EHF/PKP1/KRT3/HOXB13/SIX3/TGM5/DLX6/WT1/BMP4/SCEL/CRYGB/KRT81/KLK13/DMBT1/WNT7A/SPDEF/SPRR3/TP63/PTCH2
## GO:0055080                                                                                                    CCL19/CD38/EPB42/NPR1/TFR2/TFAP2B/ADRA1A/GPR157/SNCA/CACNA1C/CCL23/TMPRSS3/CALCR/P2RX1/CASR/ATP2B3/EPO/GRIN2C/GPR12/RHAG/SLC26A4/CASQ2/VPS33A/OXT/KL/CSRP3/CAV3/TRPA1/GRM1/RAMP3/CALM2/XCL1/CASQ1/CALCB/AVP/DRD1/KEL/ADORA2A/GCM2/SLC9A7/LCK/EDN3/S100A14/CCKBR/RHCG/GRIN1/UPK3A/CD19/RYR2/ATP12A/GSTO1/SCNN1A/TTPA/NTSR1/XK/CLDN16/TACR1/JPH2/FIS1/CYP4F12/SCNN1B/GRIN2A/ATP6V1F/CCL11/IAPP/SOD1/GPR6/P2RX2/GATA2/ALAS2/CALB1/HTR2C/DRD5/TMPRSS6/GLP1R/MS4A1/CFTR/NOX1/LCN2/FZD9/RYR1/BMP6/GDF2/F2/IL13/TRPC5/PLA2G1B/TNFSF11/CYP4F2/TRPV4/CCL1/REG1A/SGCD/AGTR2/SRI/TNNI3/P2RX5/ATP1A2/HTR1B/IL2/NEDD8/EDN2
##            Count
## GO:0010469   116
## GO:0008015   100
## GO:0003013   101
## GO:0010817    95
## GO:0030855   123
## GO:0055080   102

If the gene ID type is not any of Ensembl ID, RefSeq ID or gene symbol, user needs to provide a named vector which provides mapping between user's ID types to Entrez IDs.

In following example we demonstrate how to properly set the ID mapping by the Golub leukemia dataset. The result file is already generated.

download.file("https://jokergoo.github.io/cola_examples/Golub_leukemia/Golub_leukemia_subgroup.rds", 
    destfile = "Golub_leukemia_subgroup.rds", quiet = TRUE)
rl = readRDS("Golub_leukemia_subgroup.rds")
file.remove("Golub_leukemia_subgroup.rds") 

To simplify, we only take result from one method:

res = rl["ATC:skmeans"]
head(rownames(res))
## [1] "AFFX-BioC-5_at"  "AFFX-CreX-3_at"  "AFFX-BioDn-3_st" "hum_alu_at"      "AFFX-DapX-M_at" 
## [6] "AFFX-LysX-3_at"
set.seed(123)
get_signatures(res, k = 3)
## * 70/72 samples (in 3 classes) remain after filtering by silhouette (>= 0.5).
## * cache hash: f28d6331c7f86199f6c7209c9678af05 (seed 888).
## * calculating row difference between subgroups by Ftest.
## * split rows into 4 groups by k-means clustering.
## * 2074 signatures (50.4%) under fdr < 0.05, group_diff > 0.
##   - randomly sample 2000 signatures.
## * making heatmaps for signatures.

plot of chunk unnamed-chunk-10

The Golub leukemia dataset is a microarray dataset where the gene ID is the probe ID. Thankfully, there is already an annotation package from Bioconductor (hu6800.db) that provides mapping between the probe ID to Entrez ID.

library(hu6800.db)
x = hu6800ENTREZID
mapped_probes = mappedkeys(x)
id_mapping = unlist(as.list(x[mapped_probes]))
head(id_mapping)
##     A28102_at   AB000114_at   AB000115_at   AB000220_at AB000381_s_at   AB000409_at 
##        "2556"        "4958"       "10964"       "10512"        "2765"        "8569"

Proportion of probe IDs that can be mapped:

sum(!is.na(id_mapping[rownames(res)]))/nrow(res)
## [1] 0.8627308

As you see, the format of id_mapping is simple. Names of the vector are the probe IDs and the values are the Entrez IDs. We can directly assign the ID mapping variable to id_mapping argument.

lt = functional_enrichment(res, k = 3, id_mapping = id_mapping)

functional_enrichment() can also be applied to two other classes of objects:

sessionInfo()
## R Under development (unstable) (2020-01-28 r77731)
## Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit)
## Running under: Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS
## 
## Matrix products: default
## BLAS:   /home/biocbuild/bbs-3.11-bioc/R/lib/libRblas.so
## LAPACK: /home/biocbuild/bbs-3.11-bioc/R/lib/libRlapack.so
## 
## locale:
##  [1] LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8       LC_NUMERIC=C               LC_TIME=en_US.UTF-8       
##  [4] LC_COLLATE=C               LC_MONETARY=en_US.UTF-8    LC_MESSAGES=en_US.UTF-8   
##  [7] LC_PAPER=en_US.UTF-8       LC_NAME=C                  LC_ADDRESS=C              
## [10] LC_TELEPHONE=C             LC_MEASUREMENT=en_US.UTF-8 LC_IDENTIFICATION=C       
## 
## attached base packages:
##  [1] parallel  stats4    grid      stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets  methods  
## [10] base     
## 
## other attached packages:
##  [1] hu6800.db_3.2.3      org.Hs.eg.db_3.10.0  AnnotationDbi_1.49.1 IRanges_2.21.3      
##  [5] S4Vectors_0.25.12    Biobase_2.47.2       BiocGenerics_0.33.0  GetoptLong_0.1.8    
##  [9] mvtnorm_1.0-12       matrixStats_0.55.0   circlize_0.4.8       ComplexHeatmap_2.3.0
## [13] cola_1.3.4           knitr_1.28           markdown_1.1        
## 
## loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
##  [1] mclust_5.4.5         Rcpp_1.0.3           lattice_0.20-38      png_0.1-7           
##  [5] digest_0.6.23        mime_0.9             slam_0.1-47          R6_2.4.1            
##  [9] RSQLite_2.2.0        evaluate_0.14        httr_1.4.1           highr_0.8           
## [13] GlobalOptions_0.1.1  rlang_0.4.4          annotate_1.65.1      blob_1.2.1          
## [17] Matrix_1.2-18        reticulate_1.14      splines_4.0.0        stringr_1.4.0       
## [21] RCurl_1.98-1.1       bit_1.1-15.1         umap_0.2.4.1         compiler_4.0.0      
## [25] eulerr_6.0.0         xfun_0.12            pkgconfig_2.0.3      askpass_1.1         
## [29] microbenchmark_1.4-7 shape_1.4.4          openssl_1.4.1        XML_3.99-0.3        
## [33] crayon_1.3.4         bitops_1.0-6         rappdirs_0.3.1       jsonlite_1.6.1      
## [37] xtable_1.8-4         DBI_1.1.0            magrittr_1.5         skmeans_0.2-11      
## [41] stringi_1.4.5        impute_1.61.0        genefilter_1.69.0    xml2_1.2.2          
## [45] brew_1.0-6           vctrs_0.2.2          rjson_0.2.20         RColorBrewer_1.1-2  
## [49] tools_4.0.0          bit64_0.9-7          survival_3.1-8       clue_0.3-57         
## [53] colorspace_1.4-1     cluster_2.1.0        memoise_1.1.0